When starting the work on the project Artichoke in 1952 the American inteligence services set their goals in a memorandum as follows: "Evolution and development of any method by which we can get information from a person against his will and without his knowledge...Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature such as self preservation?".

In 1953 the CIA who took over the program made it a part of MKULTRA program the name of which was to note the ultra sensitive work involved.

When in July l977 the director of the CIA Stanfield Turner publicly described MKULTRA as only a program of drug experimentation, John Marks, the author of books on the CIA, presented at a press conference among others the CIA documents on experiments with the control of the animal behavior by means of electric stimulation of the brain [see the NOTE at the end of the article]. The signals in the nerves in the brain and the whole body are carried by weak electrical impulses. The scientists who experimented since 1930 with the electrical stimulation of the brain inserted tiny wires (electrodes) into the brains of animals and humans and stimulated the nerves in different points of the brain by impulses of weak electrical current. In this way they produced reactions normally aroused by sensory perceptions or events inside of the organism. In the early sixties the CIA experimented with the use of dogs and cats as guided microphones and bombs. The report on MKULTRA subproject 94 issued in October 1960 read : "Initial biological work on techniques and brain locations essential to providing conditioning and control of animals has been completed...The feasibility of remote control of activities in several species of animals has been demonstrated. The present investigations are directed toward improvement of techniques." The CIA research staff memorandum for the deputy director of the agency of April 21, 1961 states a production capability: "At present time we feel that we are close to having debugged a prototype system whereby dogs can be guided along specific courses through land areas out of sight and at some distance of the opertor... In adition to its possible practical value in operations, this phenomenon is a very useful research tool in the area of the behavioral sciences. Dr. {blanked out} is taking appropriate action to exploit our knowledge of this area and provide adequate background for the development of future Agency applications in the general areas of Influencing Human Behavior, Indirect Assesment and Interrogation Aids."

In 1969 Dr. Jose Delgado, a Yale psychologist, published a book "Physical Control of the mind, Toward a Psychocivilized Society. In this book he presented the results of the 30 years long research. The scientists had succeded in maping out the relations between different points in the brain and activities, functions and senesatins of humans and animals. 100 stimulations of one point in the bull's brain made him 100 times bellow. The stimulation of the motion center in the cat's brain by electric current of 1,2 miliampere made it raise his hind foot below the floor, at 1,5 miliampere it raised the foot by 4 cm, at 1,8 miliampere it raised the foot all the way up, at 2 miliamperes it raised the foot even during the jump and landed badly. When a man was asked to straighten his hand the bending of which was stimulated he replied "I think your electricity is stronger then my will." By means of electrical stimulation of the brain the rhythm of breathing and heart beat [this was even stopped for several pulses] was affected as well as the function of the most of the viscera - alike the secretion of the gall bladder. As well frowning, opening and closing of eyes and mouth, chewing, yawning, sleep, dizziness, epileptic seizures in healthy persons etc were induced. The behavior aroused by stimulation was purposeful - a cat with whom the licking was induced was looking for something to lick. Stimulation of more superior nerves in the brain produced more complex movements: a monkey got to its feet whenever the stimulation of a point in the brain started and sat back to eat its food whenever the stimulation was stopped. The stimulation of points in the brain where feelings and emotions reside produced decisions. A passive, depressed woman tore up a piece of paper when her center of anger was stimulated: "I did not control myself. I had to get up and tear.", she commented. An agressive woman, when the same point stimulated, got up and smashed against the wall the guitar she was playing until the moment of stimulation. The intensity of anger could be controled by turning the knob which controled the intensity of the electric current. When the pleasure center was stimulated women offered marriage to therapeuts. Stimulation of a point in a monkey's brain stopped her maternal behavior toward a newborn baby. When the limbic system was stimulated the patients vigilance weakened, they lost capacity to think, often they began to undress or grope and when the stimulation stopped they did not remember it. The closenest of human inventions to the nature documents the best the experiment when the electrodes were implanted in the cat's internal ear and connected with an amplifier and loudspeakers. The cat's internal ear functioned as a microphone conversing the sounds into electrical impulses which were collected by electrodes and from the loudspeakers sounded the words whispered into the cat's ears [remember the use of cats by the CIA as guided microphones]. Later on the opposite procedure produced in blind persons the visual perceptions of Brail's characters, which they learned to read.

Jose Delgado himself became world known when he faced a charging bull, fitted with electrodes and with no other protection save the small black box in his hands with which he had goaded the bull to become further enraged. Then with the bull almost upon him, he pressed another button and the animal promptly stopped in its tracks. At the end of his book Jose Delgado states that the hope that the new power acquired by the behavioral science will remain limited to scientists or some charitable elite does not raise neither distant nor recent past and that the control of human behavior will quickly progress in methodology as well as in applicability. He proposed to employ this new knowledge to create a "psychocivilized society".

Gordon Thomas (the author of the book inspired by the abuse of mental patients in Montreal used for the CIA experiments with the behavior control by means of drugs and different psychological techniques inspired by Russians) who, besides the CIA documents, based his book on interviews with the former CIA employees describes the visit of the director of the CIA Office of Research and Development at the CIA director's office in 1972 where he enthused that the electrical stimulation of the brain was the key to creating not only a psychocivilized person but an entire psychocivilized society - a world where every human thought, emotion, sensation and desire could be actually controled by electrical stimulation of the brain.

John Marks in the book on the same subject writes: the Office of Research and Development officials "kept probing for ways to control human behavior and they were doing so with space age technology that made the days of MKULTRA look like the horse and buggy era. If man could get to the moon by the end of the 1960s, certainly the well financed scientists of ORD could make a good shot at conquering the inner space. They brought their technology to bear on subjects like the electric stimulation of the brain."

Jose Delgado, in 1969 wrote that the technology of extrasensorial communication between brains and computers without cutting the skin is withina reach and its consequences are difficult to predict.

If the CIA tried to use the electrical brain stimulation to produce the new generation of the lie detector they would have to implant the electrodes in the points in the brain where the thoughts origin in both the investigator and the interrogated and connect them. In the same way if they wished to control somebody's behavior he would have to "obey" his "bosse's" thoughts. Of course this would be a very clumsy way to do it. But the methods of brain stimulation and registration of brain activity were progressing fast.

In the sixties the subcuteanous stimulator activated by radio signals was used. In the seventies the scientists found out that the electrical signals in the brain generate a weak magnetic field and that the brain points can be stimulated also by electromagnetic pulses for which the skull and other tissues form no obstacles - so there was no more need to implant electrodes in the brain. In the 1980s the neuromagnetometer was developed which functions as an atnenna and can monitor the patterns emerging from the brain. This antenna combined with the computer can localize the points in the brain where the brain events occur. The whole product is called magnetoencephalograph. These are results of unclassified medical researches [John Marks describes the story of the american scientist John Lilly who experimented with the electrical stimulation of the brain in the early fifties end gave up his research under the pressure of the CIA to classify his research] which in princip do not rule out the feasibility of the manipulation of events in the human brain. Gordon Thomas describes in his book on the CIA mind control research a"Schwitzgebel machine" which the CIA produced. "Using the latest computer technology (dr. Aldrich) developed Rubensteinİs earlier work on radio telemetry and the unfulfilled dream... of a world of electrically monitored people became that much more of a reality..." The Schwitzgebel machine consisted of a Behavior Transmitter-Reinforcer fitted to a body belt that "receive from and transmitted signals to a radio module" (at that time electroencephalographical recordings of astronauts brain waves were transmitted by means of radio telemetry from the space to the earth). The Schwitzgebel machine was able "to record all physical and neurological signs in a subject from up to a quarter of a mile". So already in 1972 the Schwitzgebel machine consisted of both computer and antenna.

The Russian research remained unknown until the fall of 1990 when the Washington Post brought an article voicing the American armed forces and intelligence services alarm over the Russian progres in the development of extrasensorial capacities: "According to the communications of Russian defectors Russians have succes in influencing human behavior, changing human feelings and health condition, incuring inconsciousnes and even killing people... In one of the documents from the headquarters of the Intelligence Service at the American Department of Defense it is said that the Soviet experiments impose on the recipient disquietude combined with shortwindednes and the feeling of beeing hit on the head... Some western observers of extrasensorial developments are alarmed... by inauspicious effects of methods of subconscious influencing when used against the U.S. staff operating the nuclear missiles" (quoted from soviet Komsomolskaya Pravda).

The soviet newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda opened an investigation to find facts justifying these hints but all it found was a statement by a scientist that it is possible to produce such a machine, that the machine would work on bases of electromagnetic waves (the range of which knows no obstacles in the nature) and that it is not out of question that such a machine is under construction. All the same during the attempted coup dİétat in Moscou in August 1991 the general Kobec warned the defenders of the Russian White House against the use of pswychotronical weapons and on August 27, 1991 the Komsomolskaya Pravda published a statement by Victor Sedleckij the design engineer in chief of the center Forma and the vice president of the League of Independent Soviet Scientits where he communicated: "As an expert and juridical personality I declare: In Kiev was launched a mass production of psychotronical biogenerators and their tests. I can not assert that during the coup dİétat were used exactly the Kiev generators... All the same the fact that they were used is evident to me. What are the psychotronical generators? It is an electronical equipment which produces the effect of guided control in human organism. It affects especially the left and right hemisphere of the cortex. This is also the technology of the U.S. project Zombie 5... I draw on my personal experience since I am myself the designer of such a generator."

After that statement several Russian newspapers reopened the investigation on the matter. This time the number of institutions working on the project (about 40), the budget (half a bilion of soviet rubles) and the contents of the government document aproving of the project were published. As well as the American project it was supposed to influence not only the individuals but also the whole population. Among the uncorfirmed information there was also a hint that there exist an agreement among 20 states that they would not use these devices against each other. But nobody confirmed the existence of the machine. The confirmation came again from the United States. In March 1994 the Village Voice published an interview with Steve Killion, deputy chief of the FBIİs technical services division. In March 1993 "Russian scientists demonstrated to 10 American military, intelligence and law-enforcement officials in Washington a device they claimed could subliminaly implant thoughts in peopleİs minds and thereby control their actions." Steven Killion was one of the present. "In the normal course of your negotiation with the individual by telephone you can impress a coded message" said Killiuon "it is not realized consciously by the individual, but subconsciously, subliminally they understand it." So the existence of the Russian machine was confirmed by the speaker of the American government. John Marks in his book quotes a CIA researcher stating the Americans had a 10 years headstart on the rest of the world in 1965. It is not realistic to believe that under the conditions of the Cold War the Americans would abandon the research. The Victor Sedleckijİs statement does not support this idea either.

Was the device ever used? In November 1986 at the opening of the trial with two Arabian terrorists in West Berlin the defendant Salameh, when the judge red him his unambiguous pleading guilty from his pretrial testimony, replied that he remembers having made a testimony but he does not remember which because at the time of his testimony he was not fully himself. The other defendant, Hasi, at the opening of his testimony raised from his chair to make clear that he wants to make an official statement and he started: "In the name of Allah, commiseration, in the name of Arab nation I would like to explain what I had to suffer here in the Federal Republic of Germany..." then he spoke allways faster, the translator could not follow him and finally Hasi shouted and waved his fist against the audience. Only when the judge calmed him he was able to continue his speech saying that the Federal Republic of Germany is a democratic state and therefore the torture there is illegal. All the same he as well as Salameh were tortured - Salameh immediately confirmed that - and Hasi explained that this was a psychological torture: into their cells the voices were transmitted that paralyzed their brains and made them confess the crimes they had never commited. The judge objected that Hasiİs cell was searched as a result of his written complaint and no voices were found there. Hasi then explained that those voices were transmitted by means of some waves directly into his head by western secret services. When the audience laughed at that Hasi turned to them and said that even the man who discovered that the Earth is round was eliminated by the Church in spite of beeing riht just like he is right now. When the judge asked him whether he hears those voices during the trial he answered "no" (see the account of Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of November 18, 1986). If Hasi answered the last question positively he would have to be sent to the psychiatric treatment and he could avoid the punishment by the German Court as well as eventual revenge of Syria whose involvement in the terrorist attack both defendants disclosed in their pretrial testimonies.

In 1977 the CIA director Stanfield Turner publicly acknowledged that the CIA experimented with people many of whom were not volunteering for the experiments. Unfortunately anyone who becomes subject of the experiments with devices described in this article, risks, in attempting his defense, that he would be declared mentally ill.