Favorite Articles

Doug emailed me these articles with his comments


Auditory Perception of Radio-frequency Electromagnetic Fields
Human Drug Testing by the CIA
Synthetic Telepathy or "Did you know you can hear Microwaves?"
Frey Microwave Hearing Experiment
Bibliography on Microwave Hearing

Article 1 - Auditory Perception of
Radio-frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Comments by Doug:

There has been much discussion of "Microwave Hearing" phenomenon on the net. I was intrigued by this and have done some research. It turns out that microwave hearing does indeed exist. There is a fair sized body of research available on the subject. This is one of the more complete reviews of the subject. The entire article is long, and I am not going to post it all. But I will review it.

The name of the Article is:
Auditory Perception of radio-frequency Electromagnetic Fields

It appeared in:
The Journal of Acoustical Society of America 1982 pages 1321-1334.

It was written by:
Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy

The above authors were Phd Researchers at the University of Washington as of the publication date of this article.

This research was funded by:
Office of Naval Intellegence, National Institute of Handicapped Research, and Department of Education with a special thanks to Richard M. White of University of California, Berkeley.


Pulsed microwaves have been heard as sound by radar operators since radar was invented during World War II. ...

The earliest report we have found on the auditory perception of pulsed microwave appeared in 1956 as an advertisement of the Airborne Instruments Lab in Proceedings of the IRE. The advertisement described observations made in 1947 on the hearing of sounds that occurred at the repetion rate of a radar while the listener stood close to a horn antenna. When the observers first told their coworkers in the Lab of their hearing experiences, they encountered skepticism and rather pointed questions about their mental health. (emphasis this author)


Power Levels and Frequency Range

At very low frequency range (< 1MHz), a human-size biological object absorbs very little radio-frequency energy; however, the absorption can be appreciable at the resonant frequency near 70-80 MHz (where the long dimension of the body is approximately 0.4 wavelengths) (Durney etal. 1978). For a human head, the resonant frequency is near 600 Mhz....Although there is universal agreement on the thermal effects of the highlevel (> 100 milliWatts/centimeter(squared)) radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, there is considerable debate on the biological effects of low-level (< 100mWatts/cm2) electromagnetic radiation.


The thresholds (for hearing ed) of average power density of fields at the head were determined to be 0.4 and 2mW/cm2, respectively for the two transmitters.


In another experiment they used a 2450MHz pulse generator with pulses in the 0.5 to 32 microsecond width. The generator produced peak power of 10kW. Calculations indicated that the maximum amount of absorbed energy was 16 microjoules/gram (They are talking microjoules per gram now instead of milliwatts per cm squared. They use microjoules when they talk of absorbed energy and milliwatts when talking about radiated wattage. The two are related of course, but the energy absorbed depends on the makeup of the human head, whereas the energy radiated is dependent on the transmission power). (ED)


In another experiment thay used 5 to 15 microsecond pulses at 3 Ghz frequency.


The microwave-induced auditory phenomenon is an example of a microwave- biological interaction that has been well quantified and has been widely accepted (emphasis this author) as a bonafide "weak-field" effect. Although originally the hypothesis of a dirct nervous system stimulation was proposed, the evidence is now strongly convincing that the hearing phenomenon is related thermoelastically induced mechanical vibration. The same type of vibration can be produced by other means, e.g. by a laser pulse, or by activating a piezoelectric crystal in contact with the skull (Hmm, implants? ed.).


The paper ends with about a page of references to other works, one of which is Frey's paper published in 1963.

So there you have it folks, Microwave hearing is fact, not fiction.


Article 2 - Human Drug Testing by the CIA

Comments by Doug:

The following are excerpts from the Congressional record titled Human Drug Testing by the Cia, 1977, Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. This Committee met on September 20, 1977. This information was found on Microfiche CIS785411-19, with the call #KF49.C6. It is an official US document.

Opening Statement by Chairman

Today the Health and Scientific Research Subcommittee resumes it's inquiry into the biologic and behavioral activities off the Central Intellegence Agency and the Department of Defense. The events we will hear about over the next 2 days occurred between 1952 and 1972. They had their origin in a different time which had differnt values and realities. But it is important for us to fully understand these events today--because they raise fundamental quesitons about what kind of society we are and what we want to become.


Individual Americans from all social levels, high and low, were made the unwitting subjects of drug tests;scores of Universities were used to further CIA research objectives without their knowledge, thus threatening in a fundamental way their traditional independence and integrity; other Government agencies such as the Bureau of Narcotics, the National Institute of Health, and the Internal Revenue Service, were used to further the programs and mission of the Central Intellegence Agency.

These projects were not the creation of low-level agency bureaucrats working against the wishes or without the knowledge of the Agency's leadership.


on to page 158

I. Codeword Projects Identified by the Central Intellegence Agency

In testimony on August 3, 1977, before a joint session of the Senate Select Committee on Intellegence and the Senate Committe on Health and Scientific Research, the Director of Central Intelligence reported that the Central Intellegence Agency has located a number of boxes of documents, consisting largly of financial records, relating to experiments using human subjects in which drugs were tested for mind-control and behavior modification purposes. The Director testified that it appeared that three of the projects described by these documents--projects designated MKSEARCH, MKOFTEN and MKCHICKWIT--were Department of Defense programs with which the CIA had had some contact. The Director also described three other projects -- designated MKULTRA< MKDELTA and MKNAOMI -- which were primarily CIA progects but which might have had some Department of Defense involvement.

It appears from the available documents that these projects cover subjects matters as follows:

MKDELTA: This was apparently the first project established by the CIA in October, 1952, for the use of biochemicals in clandestine operations. It may never have been implemented operationally.

MKULTRA: This was a successor project to MKDELTA established in April, 1953, and terminating some time int the late 1960's probably after 1966. This progam considered various means of controlling human behavior. Drugs were only one aspect of this activity.

MKNAOMI: This project began in the 1950's and was terminated at least with respect biological projects, in 1969. This may have been a successor to MKDELTA. Its purpose was to stockpile severly incapacitating and lethal materials, and to defvelop gadgetry for the dissemination of these materials.

MKSEARCH: This was apparently a successor project to MKULTRA, which began in 1965 and was terminated in 1973. The objective of the project was to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior in a predictable manner through the use of drugs.

MKCHICKWIT: This was apparantly a part of the MKSEARCH program. ITs objective was to identify new drug developments in Europe and Asia and to obtain information and samples.

MKOFTEN: This was also apparently a part of the MKSEARCH project. Its objective was to test the behavioral and toxicological effects of certain drugs on animals and humans.

II. Army Programs

It appears from the available documents that the Army was involved in one aspect of the CIA project designated as MKCHICKWIT and two aspects of a counterpart project designated MKOFTEN. The document search is described in section A below, and eachof the Army programs is describe in section B below.


(The report continues for over 100 pages, you will have to look it up yourself but it does feature original testimony by the people involved as well as revealing original documents. It is these documents that were the source of Marks book "In Search of the Manchurian Candidate"

Contrary to what many people concluded, this type of research did not stop in the 1970's nor has it stopped today. For an update on what is happening today read Constantine's "Psychic Dictatorship of the USA".


Article 3 - Synthetic Telepathy or
"Did you know you can hear Microwaves?"

by Judy Wall

Comments by Doug:

At first one might be tempted to lump this sort of thing with "time machines" or "anti-gravity" devices. However, no fundamental laws of Physics are broken by this technology. So read on..


Synthetic telepathy is a term used to describe the beaming of words, thoughts, or ideas into a person's mind by mechanical means, specifically, some type of electromagnetic transmitter, similar to a radio or television broadcast, operating in the microwave frequency band.

Humans have been hearing voices in their heads since the beginning of time. Everyone hears their own voice, of course, in everyday thought patterns. We hear other people's voices in our imagination and in our dreams. But to hear voices originating from outside the head when there is no other person present is to cause a dilemma. Is it our imagination? Is it the wind or some other natural sound that we are misinterpreting? (The calls of many animals can sound amazingly human-like. Bird calls, such as that made by a peacock can sound like a human in distress. Some sound like the wail of a baby.)

But suppose the sound heard is definitely a human speech pattern? The Bible records the story of young Samuel, under the tutelage of Eli. One night Samuel is awakened from his sleep by a voice calling his name. He runs to Eli, saying, "Here I am." The priest dismisses the boy. It happens again. It happens a third time. This time Eli says to Samuel, "Go lie down; and it shall be, if he call thee, that thou shalt say, Speak Lord, for thy servant heareth." The voice called to Samuel again, and he answered as he had been directed. And the Lord spoke to Samuel.

This is not the only case recorded. The Bible is replete with accounts of humans hearing and responding to voices in the air. But identifying the source of the voice is of major importance. Is it the voice of God, and angel, a devil, an animal (recall the story of Balaam being rebuked by his ass), or other humans playing tricks on that person?

Persons who claim regularly to communicate with unseen beings have been treated as saints and seers to be revered; witches or warlocks to be burnt at the stake; or just plain crazy to be ignored, locked up, or perhaps subjected to electroshock therapy, a kind of torture used to convince the patient that it is better to discontinue such claims. The latter attitude is the one currently held by medical authorities in today's world.

Enter the Dragon: the High Sophistication of Modern Electronics Technology

The first, and perhaps only, officially reported scientific experiment documenting a case of synthetic telepathy - the one that everyone makes reference to - cannot be found in the literature. Here's what happened.

In 1961 Allen Frey, a free-lance biophysicist and engineering psychologist, reported that human can hear microwaves (1). This discovery was dismissed by most United States scientists as being the result of artifact (outside noise). In 1976 the Defense Intelligence Agency attributed the discovery to Soviet researchers. (See Keeler article, Resonance #23, page 7 under "Disinformation".)

The more technical description of the experiment is described by James C. Linn (2). "Frey...found that human subjects exposed to 1310 MHz and 2982 MHz microwaves at average power densities of 0.4 to 2 mW/cm2 perceived auditory sensations described as buzzing or knocking sounds." (also described as clicks or chirps.) "The peak power densities were on the order of 200 to 300 mW/cm2 and the pulse repetition frequencies varied from 200 to 400 Hz...Frey referred to this auditory phenomenon as the RF (radio frequency) sound. The sensation occurred instantaneously at average incident power densities well below that necessary for known biological damage and appeared to originate from within or near the back of the head."

Further testing revealed that two requirements were necessary for the subject to hear the microwave induced sound: good bone conduction and the ability to hear acoustic energy above 5 kHz..." Don Justesen (3) reports that there is a sizeable minority of people, including himself, who cannot hear microwaves under direct radiation. Lin also noted, "Additional data indicated that perception of microwave induced sound was primarily a function of the peak power density and secondarily dependent on pulse width."

Skeptics were finally convinced by a study of behavioral sensitivity to low-level microwave radiation in rats by Nancy King in 1971. (4)

By 1975 the introduction to a paper by A.W. Guy and others begins "One of the most widely observed and accepted biologic effects of low average power electromagnetic (EM) energy is the auditory sensation evoked in man when exposed to pulsed microwaves." (5)

That paper's aim was to determine the threshold of the sound- inducing phenomenon as 1) a function of pulse power or energy, pulse shape, and carrier frequency 2) the locus of the action, that is, whether it is initiated at a central or peripheral site, and 3) whether it is caused by direct action of the EM field on the nervous system or if it activates the auditory system (the ear and related parts that normally conduct sound to the brain).

After a battery of tests the following conclusions were made:

Another study conducted by C.K. Chou and others (6) investigated the possibility of the acoustic systems as the site of interaction between electromagnetic waves and biological tissue in producing the microwave hearing phenomenon. Demonstration of microwave- induced cochlear microphonics (the mechanical movement of cochlear hair cells) in laboratory animals confirmed this.

But scientists wanted to know exactly how the microwaves induced the reaction. Guy and others showed that at frequencies where the auditory effect can easily be detected, microwaves penetrate deeply into the tissues of the head. Absorbed energy causes rapid thermal expansion (at the microscopic level) which produces strains in the tissue. This produces an acoustic stress wave that is conducted through the bone to the cochlea. From there it proceeds in the same manner as in conventional hearing.

Simple or slow heating of the tissue by microwaves does not give rise to the auditory effect. Only microwaves that have a short rise time, that is, square waves that cause a rapid rise in the microenvironment's temperature will produce the stress wave.

Several other mechanisms to describe this EM-biological interaction have been advanced, but the above theory, called the thermoelastic theory, is thought to be the most probable because calculations for acoustic pressure are much higher for this method than for the others. Do you really want me to describe the other theories too? No, I didn't think so.

Where Does Synthetic Telepathy Fit In?

Justesen reports that A.W. Guy had his father, a skilled telegrapher, send messages in Morse code via the microwave auditory method. This might be useful in certain situations. Still, it is a far cry from "hearing voices".

The credit for performing an actual experiment in which audible voices were communicated via microwaves is given to Joseph Sharp and Mark Grove. Justesen reports that they recorded on tape the spoken words for the single syllable numbers one through ten. "The electrical sine wave analogs of each word was then processed so that each time a sine wave crossed zero reference in the negative direction, a brief pulse of microwave energy was triggered. By radiating themselves with these voice-modulated microwaves, Sharp and Grove were readily able to hear, identify, and distinguish among the nine words. The sounds heard were not unlike those emitted by persons with artificial larynxes. Communication of more complex words and of sentences was not attempted because the averaged densities of energy required would approach the current 10 mW/cm2 limit of safe exposure."

The 1976 Defense Intelligence Agency report mentioned previously (under Keeler, "Disinformation") also credited the Soviet scientists with making the Sharp-Grove discovery. Keeler says that this item "found its way into at least one Congressional report and was printed in a number of newspapers and professional journals". Motivation for such a disinformation campaign was to coerce Congress and the American public into authorizing and allocating money for projects to "catch up" with the Russians.

References in the literature citing Sharp and Grove refer to a paper, "Generation of Acoustic Signals by Pulsed Microwave Energy" (7) that, from the title, would indicate that this is the above mentioned classic experiment. But it is not. It is apparently a next-step type experiment, in which sounds are generated by microwave pulses when aimed at absorbers (carbon-impregnated polyurethane microwave absorbers, and aluminum foil is used). They do not make reference in this paper to the above experiment, not even citing it in their references, as would be usual in referring to a previous work.

Why, we might ask, did they not publish such a startling discovery? How did Justesen come by the information to relate it in his paper? Is it a reliable piece of information?

Justesen references it in his notes as received by "personal communication, September 28, 1973".

The answer to the question, why did they not publish their discovery, is contained within Justesen's paper, although in an oblique way. Remember that after the U.S. discovered the microwave beam directed at the American embassy in Moscow, Milton Zaret was brought in to evaluate the situation. But, Justesen says about the incident, "American intelligence agents were understandably curious, but they did not want their Soviet counterparts to know that the microwave bombardment had been detected. Enter the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an arm of the Executive Office that specializes in getting fast answers to far-out questions that may bear on national security. Agents for ARPA contacted Joseph C. Sharp, former director of research in experimental psychology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and an electronic engineer, Mark Grove, who began to put together at Walter Reed what is now one of the best equipped laboratories in the United States for studying biopsychological effects of microwave radiations."

Sharp and Grove were in the employ of the U.S. Government, which undoubtably told them to keep their mouths shut about the experiment. But, perhaps they had already communicated their findings to Justesen before the order to be quiet. Justesen merely calls his source a "personal communication". That could mean verbal or written. It is my guess that it was a written (or possibly tape-recorded) message that the two could not later deny having made (as in the case of Dr. Narut, who was forced to recant his remarks that the U.S. Navy was conditioning men to become assassins). At any rate, Justesen, published the incident, and it is repeated in Lin's book. (Some cite Lin as the reference.)

Lin discusses three potential medical applications of the microwave-induced hearing phenomenon (including use of the more mundane examples of clicks, chirps, and buzzes, not just the exotic "voice communication"):

Some Possible Clinical Procedures for
Evaluating Cases of Claimed Synthetic Telepathy

There is a common cry among people who claim to be victims of government conducted "mind control" operations - that no one will believe them, that there is no way to prove the voices they hear come from the outside.

Groups which are organized to be victim's advocates need a way to sort out the victims of genuine mind control experiments from others who claim to be harassed, but who, in fact, may be victims merely of their own distorted personalities (paranoia, schizophrenia, whatever). Perhaps only one in ten of claimed government harassment victims is truly such; perhaps only one in fifty, or one in a hundred. Who knows? But if only a single claim be true, it needs to be documented.

Not only is it important to sort out the "true victims" from others for the sake of evaluating and combatting the situation, it is necessary to be able to provide objective proof of the fact to third parties in order to elicit help, awareness of the problem, and legislative action against it.

The above reported research offers some options along these lines. I respectfully submit the following measures be used in evaluation and identifying causes of illegal mind control experiments and harassment:

  1. Victim's advocate groups should hire a medical doctor or scientist sympathetic to the cause to evaluate cases. Individuals claiming abuse should be referred to this person.
  2. How does the victim describe the voice he/she hears? Is it like the artificial voice described in the Sharp and Grove experiment? An indication that there is an unreal or unnatural sound connected to the voice would be a very strong response to indicate an artificial mechanism involved.
    Of course, there will be those who say, "It sounds like a normal voice," or "It sounds like my own thoughts, but I know it isn't. Isn't it possible that advances have been made in the past twenty years to update the technology to make it sound more like a normal, human voice?" Yes, of course, it is possible. Still, a computer- like voice would certainly put an evil or fearful connotation to the thought messages. But the government may have decided to try to simulate more natural sounds, for its own purposes. Whether they would be successful is unknown. Don't forget, that for most practical purposes, a specific word message is unnecessary. The easier-to-achieve objective of manipulating emotions (feelings of fear or panic) or physical body functions (nausea, diarrhea weakness, headache) could very well serve their purposes in the majority of cases, especially crowd control.
  3. The sensory evoked potential test is a strong candidate for absolute proof/disproof of a claim. (Refer to the Rapin work above.) A victim may not be hearing clicks or buzzes, but if he is hearing a voice, noises, anything at all, it will automatically evoke a neurological response that can be detected and cannot be bypassed. If someone is hearing microwave induced sounds or voices, it will show up on this EEG test.

One may protest that the Voices can hear and see what is happening; that they are aware of the subject's behavior and conversations, and consequently will cease whenever someone tries to detect them. I doubt that they can see what is happening at all times; an electronic camera/eye might be installed in his house or on the car, but hardly on his person. Or perhaps the victim only is harassed while at home, the microwave being beamed at his house. Therefore, testing in an office or hospital setting would show no unusual results. (This situation is common to many ailments. Two options are available here. Set up a stress test to induce the condition, or take the test equipment on site when the problem occurs. The second option is the one that could be used here.) There are portable electroencephalograph (EEG) machines.

  1. The above objection could be overcome by arranging for "house calls". The doctor could have a system worked out for situations of this type. The office visit might include a moment when the doctor excuses himself for some reason, hands the victim a paper with the words do not read aloud, do not discuss this with anyone, not even the doctor or assistants. The paper would include instructions as to how to secretly contact the doctor when the voices are strong in order that an EEG recording might be taken at the victim's house.
  2. Or the Victim might be fitted with a telemetry apparatus to relay the EEG recordings via radio transmission back to the clinic.

Cesar Caceres (10) describes several such medical telemetry devices. The first transmission of heart sounds was accomplished in 1921 by the U.S. Army Signal Corps from ships to shore.

C.C. Breaksell and C.S. Parker in England, 1949, used frequency modulation (FM) for the radio transmission of a human electroencephalogram (EEG) (11).

Although the EEG is usually described as more difficult to record than the electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) due to its lower voltage output, thereby necessitating more sensitive instrumentation and greater amplification, its transmission in the form of radio waves is apparently simpler. "H.W. Shipton (12) described a system that had a frequency response of 2 to 100 cps. Although this is not sufficient to transmit the clinical ECG which requires equipment with a frequency response to DC (0 cps), the system was satisfactory for such phenomenon as the EEG. It used a transmitter fashioned after the design of Thomas and Klein in their article, "How to Construct a Miniature FM Transmitter" (13). The receiver could be any domestic commercial set..."

Readers might find a more recent article in the February Popular Electronics, "Build an FM Stereo Transmitter" easier to obtain. This Fred Blechman article (14) refers to a kit offered by Ramsey Electronics and is obtainable for a cost of about $55. Easy to build, it is designed for amateur or advanced electronics enthusiasts. (I have one.)

"A. Kemp and W. Storm van Leeuwen developed a two-channel EEG radiotelemetry system which has been the basis for development work by others. Instead of FM, it uses a different system of coding the signal, PWM."(16)

The need for radiotelemetry of ECGs during exercise inspired N.J. Holter in 1957 to design an elaborate system. His 80 pound transmitter was strapped to the subject's back (enough to cause stress right there!). He later developed a tiny transmitter that the patient could carry in his pocket. (The Ramsey transmitter, mentioned above, is 5" X 5" X 1" and weighs less than one pound.) The patient's ECG was transmitted to a nearby briefcase that contained a receiver and a tape recorder. The tape could be read later. Holter also developed a method for rapidly scanning several hours of tape-recorded tracings. The tape could be played to an oscilloscope or paper write-out. If adapted for a simple single or dual channel EEG, this would be an ideal set-up for a Victim to use in recording auditory evoked potentials induced during sessions of mind control "voice" harassments.

These systems were designed mainly for short distance telemetry, perhaps within a thousand yards of the transmitter. But long distance telemetry devices have been developed as well, even to the point of transmitting to Earth from space. This was first recorded in 1958 by A.G. Kousnetzow (17).

In all of these examples, the transmitter would be fixed or attached to the subject's scalp. But there is another method for placement of the electrodes: intracerebral, that is, the electrodes are embedded within the skull. This system is reported by Jose Delgado (18). He follows the method of Mark and Ervin (19), and incidentally, one of the patients monitored was "L.K., a 35 year old white male design engineer..." Non other than Leonard Kille, and you know how he felt about this method of brain monitoring. (See Resonance #27, p.13-17, "Terminal Man" by Paul Bartch.) Best we should pass up this method.

Undoubtedly there have been many advances made in perfecting the radio-frequency systems. The references used here are given so that you can see how they developed and the fact that they evolved from simple, basic circuits to more advanced technology (present systems use computers to help read the results).

  1. 4. Victim claims he has a receiver implanted in his body. Conventional X-rays should detect any metal parts. If negative, the CAT Scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could be used for further search for plastic parts. MRI cannot be used on patients with metal implants. Cost of MRI is about $450.

There you have it folks. A review of how synthetic telepathy was discovered, how it works, ways to detect it and objectively record it. Not a perfect solution, but hopefully a start towards monitoring, validating, and correcting the problem of involuntary mind control experimentation and harassment of innocent Victims.


(1) Frey, A.H. "Auditory System Response to Radio Frequency Energy", Aerospace Med. 32:1140-1142, 1961.

(2) Lin, James C., Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, IL, USA, 1978.

(3) Justesen, Don R., "Microwaves and Behavior", Am. Psychologist, 30:391-401, 1975.

(4) King, N.W. "The Effects of Low-Level Microwave Irradiation Upon Reflexive, Operant, and Discriminative Behaviors of the Rat", unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Kansas, 1969.

King, N.W., Justesen, D.R., and Clarke, R.L., "Behavioral Sensitivity to Microwave Radiation", Science, 172:398-401, 1971.

(5) Guy, Arthur W., Chou, C.K., Lin, James C., and Christensen, D., "Microwaved-Induced Acoustic Effects in Mammalian Auditory Systems and Physical Materials", Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 247:194-218, 1975.

(6) Chou, C.K., Galambos, R., Guy, A.W., and Lovely, R.H., "Cochlear Microphonics Generated by Microwave Pulses", J. Microwave Power, 10:361-367, 1975.

(7) Sharp, Joseph C., Grove, H. Mark, and Gandhi, Om P., "Generation of Acoustic Signals by Pulsed Microwave Energy", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-22, pp.583-584, 1974.

(8) Rapin, Isabella and Graziana, Leonard J., "Auditory Evoked Responses in Normal, Brain Damaged and Deaf Infants", Neurology (Minn,), 17:881- 894, 1967.

(9) Sohmer, H., Feinmessen, M., and Szabo, G., "Sources of Electrocochleographic Responses as Studied in Patients With Brain Damage", Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37:663-669, 1974.

(10) Caceres, Cesar A., ed., Biomedical Telemetry, Academic Press, New York, London, 1965.

(11) Breaksell, C.C., and Parker, C.S., "Radio Transmission of the Human Electroencephalogram and Other Electrophysiological Data", Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2, 243, 1949.

(12) Shipton, H.W., "A Simple Telemetering System for Electrophysiological Data", Electroencephlog. Clin. Neurophysiol. 12, 922, 1960.

(13) Thomas, D.E. and Klein J.M., "How to Construct a Miniature FM Transmitter", Electronics, 32, 80, 1959.

(14) Blechman, Fred, "Build an FM Stereo Transmitter", Popular Electronics, February 1995, pp. 33-36, 91.

(15) Holter, N.J. and Gengerelli, J.A., "Remote Recording of Physiological Data by Radio", Rocky Mt. Med. J., 46, 749, 1949.

(16) Kamp, A. and Storm van Leeuwen, W., "A Two Channel EEG Radio Telemetering System", Electroencephalog. Clin. Neurophysiol., 13,803, 1961.

(17) Kousnetzov, A.G., "Some Results of Biological Experiments in Rockets and Sputnik II", J. Activation Med., 29, 781, 1958.

(18) Delgado, Jose M.R., "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients", Psychotechnology, Electronic Control of Mind and Behavior, Schweitzgebel, Robert L. and Schweitzgebel, Ralph K., eds., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. NY, 1973, pp. 184-198.

Reprint from The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, The Williams and Wilkins Company, Vol. 147, 34, 1968.

(19) Mark, V.H. and Ervin F. "The Relief of Chronic Severe Pain by Stereotactic Surgery," Pain and the Neurosurgeon: A Forty Years' Experience, Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas, 1969, pp. not given.


Article 4 - Burandanga

Comments by Doug are in square brackets [ ].

Exerpt from Wall Street Journal Article, July 3, 1995

Dateline Bogota, Colombia

If you thought cocaine was bad news, wait until you hear about Burandanga. Burundanga is a kind of voodoo powder obtained from a Colombian local plant of the nightshade family, a shrub called barrachera, or "drunken binge". Used for hundreds of years by Natie Americans in religious ceremonies, the powder when ingested causes victims to lose their will and memory, sometimes for days.

When refined the powder yields scopolamine, a well-know drug with legitimate uses as a sedative and to combat motion sickness. [Mengele of Nazi fame also had and experimented with scopolamine as a truth serum]. But in Colombia, the drug's most avid fans are street criminals. Crooks mix the powder with sedatives and feed the Burundanga cocktail to unsuspecting victims whom they then proceed to rob - or worse.

Doctors here estimate that Colombian hustlers slip the odorless, colorless and soluble Burundanga [pronounced boor-oon-DAN-ga]) in food or drink to about 500 unwitting victims in the city each month. About half of the city's total emergency room admissions for poison are Burundanga victims.

"It is a very serious problem," says Fernando Botero, Colombia's defense minister. Adds Camilo Uribe, the doctor who runs the city's formost toxicology clinic and who is in charge of toxicology for all of Bogota's public hospitals. "It's epidemic".

It seems that everyone in Bogota knows someone who has been victimized by the drug, Burundanguiado, as the say in Spanish. In one common scenario, a person will be offered a soda or drink laced with the substance. The next the person remembers is waking up miles away, extremely groggy and with no memory of what happened. People soon discover that they have handed over jewelry, money, car keys, and sometimes have even made multiple bank with- drawals for the benefit of their assailants. Because Burundanga is often given at seedy bars or houses of prostitution, many victims are reluctant to come forward.

"The victim can't say no; he has no will and becomes very open to suggestion. It's like chemical hypnotism," says Dr. Uribe. "From the moment it's given, the victim remembers absolutely nothing of what happened." He adds, "From a criminal point of view, it's got a lot of advantages".

Architect David Neneses says he was Burundanguiado twice in one week last December. Mr. Meneses' first encounter with Burundanga took place on a Friday night when he stopped at a pharmacy to buy antacid. Two well-dressed men approached hes car. The last thing Mr. Menses remembers is one of the men unwrapping a piece of candy. "I woke up the next day at noon at my house." he says. He had no memory of how he got there, though the doorman in his building told Mr. Menseses he saw him com in at 7 a.m. looking nervous and confused.

On Monday, Mr. Meneses checked with his bank, where he was told that his ATM card made 13 withdrawals for a total of about $700 on that lost Friday night. Concerned that he might have unwittingly been involved in criminal activity, or that his car had been used, Mr. Meneses went to the local prosecutors office where he made a sworn statement saying he wasn't respon- sible for anything that had happened during the hours he was under the influence of the drug.

Three days later, the luckless Mr. Meneses noticed that he had a flat tire. Two men on the street approached him and offered to change it. "I remember they gave me something to drink, which I can't imagine why I drank." he says. Police found him asleep in his car six hours later. He had been robbed of his radio and about $125.

These days, Mr. Meneses is careful to drive with the windows rolled up. He doesn't venture out much at night anymore. "Burundanga is a very dangerous weapon in the hands of the underworld" he says.

Not all cases of Burundanga involve theft or robbery. Sometimes victims have been used as mules to carry cocaine, says Dr. Uribe's brother Manuel, a neurologist practicing at the clinic. In one incident, says Manuel Uribe, a well-known Colombian diplomat disappered shortly after leaving a function in Bogota, only to reappear in Chile under arrest for cocaine smuggling. Medical tests showed he had been under the influence of Burundanga, and no charges were filed.

Camilo Uribe said that in a minority of cases Burundanga is used to lure young women who are then abused sexually. When they are found days later, they have no memory of what has happened to them. "You see that a lot with university coeds." he says.

Camilo Uribe is often called by companies and embassies to talk about the perils of Burundanga. One diplomatic mission that takes the problem very seriously is the U.S. Embassy. Its orientation manual warns freshman diplomats never to visit bars or nightclubs alone. "Druggings in group situations are far less common" the manual says, adding that food and drinks should never be left unattended. At the Colombian unit of Dow Chemical Co. (now there's an organization that knows about drugs!) security officials periodically tell employees how to avoid getting Burundanguiado "There have been many cases." says Oswaldo Parra, the company's legal officer. "It's a very common practice in Colombia."

Curiosly, just next door i Ecuador, where the plant is grown commercially for medical purposes, its criminal use is unknown. Instead, the plant is the subject of poetry and myth. If one sleeps under the plant i Ecuador, he will be able to tell the future, legends say.

Here, however, Pedro Gomez Silva, a forensic chemical expert, tells police cadets that for fear of Burundanga, Colombians shouldn't accept food, drinks or cigarettes from strangers, nor buy them from street vendors.

What's more, to be on the safe side, Colombians shouldn't help when asked for directions or the time of day. And forget sidewalk romances. Teh way things go with Burundanga, flirting with a stranger could lead to a really lost weekend.

End article.

Note by Doug:

This substance can be given by liquid, cigarette or inhalant. It is tasteless and oderless and can given with a drug that makes the victim temporarily bliind. The victim under this drug, with an experienced operator, will tell the truth to any question asked. The victim may have no memory of the event, or may remember the event as a dream. Memories of events while on this drug may come into conciousness many years later. The cia/fbi/nsa and most police departments know about these drugs. This drug is used by security forces to "make people forget" other events. Victims of this drug often report distorted vision, especially things being made wide and small, or the giver's head starting to stretch.


Article 5 - Frey Microwave Hearing Experiment

This article is from 1962 Journal of Applied Physiology 17(4) pages 689-692.
Allan H. Frey
General Electric Advanced Electronics Center
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
Courtesy of MindNet
Frey Article from MCF Archives

Frey, Allan H., Human Auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy.
J. Appl. Physiol. 17(4): 689-692. 1962.

Note: This paper explains how voices can be beamed directly into an individual's head. (*) Asterisks indicate unreadable characters in the original copy. --The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomena to the attention of physiologists. Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modula- tion. Attempts were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and acoustic energy. The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by the rf transmitter's modulator. Peak power density is a critical factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 db, a peak power density of approximately 275 mw / rf is needed to induce the perception at carrier freq- uencies 125 mc and 1,310 mc. The average power density can be at rf as low as 400 _u_w/cm2. The evidence for the various positive sites of the electromagneticenergy sensor are discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.


Article 6 - Bibliography on Microwave Hearing

The following is a bibliography of research available on Microwave Hearing. The first article is a very good review of what was known as of 1982. This bibliography was obtained from the first article so all articles are 1982 or earlier.

Journal Acoustical Society of America, June 1982 pages 1321-1334 "Auditory perception of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields" Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy

Journal of Applied Physiology 17(4): pages 689-692. 1962 "Human Auditory System Response To Modulated Electromagnetic Energy" Frey,Allan

Airborne Instruments Lab (1956).Proceedings of the IRE October 1956 "An Observation on the Detection by the Ear of Microwave Signals"

Cain,C.A. And Rissman, W.J. (1978) "Mammalian Auditory Response to 3.0 GHz Microwave Pulses," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 25, 288-293

Chou, C.K. (1975). "Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Nervous System" Phd dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle WA

Chou, C.K. Galambos, R. Guy, A.W. and Lovely, R.H. (1975) "Cochlear Microphonics Generated by Microwave Pulses" Journal Microwave Power 10(4), 361-367

Chou, C.K., Guy, A.W., and Galambos, R. (1976) "Microwave-Induced Auditory Response: Cochlear Microphonics" Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. I, HEW Publication, FDA 77-8010) pp 89-103

Chou, C. K., Guy A. W., and Galambos, R. (1976b). "Microwave-Induced Cochlear Microphonics in Cats," Journal Microwave Power 11(2), 171-173

Chou, C. K., Guy A. W., and galambos, R. (1977). "Characteristics of Microwave Induced Microphonics," Radio Sci. 12(6S), 221-227

Chou, C. K., and Galambos, R (1979). "Middle-Ear Structures Contribute Little to Auditory Perception of Microwaves" Journal of Microwave Power (1974) 14(4) pages 321-326

Chou, C. K., and Guy, A.W. (1979a) "Carbon-Loaded Teflon Electrodes for Chronic EEG Recordings in Microwave Research" Journal of Microwave Power, p 399-404

Chou, C. K., and Guy, A.W. (1979b) "Microwave-Induced Auditory Responses in Guinea Pigs: Relationship of Threshold and Microwave-Pulse Duration" Radio Science 14(6s), pages 193-197

Chou, C. K., Guy, A.W. Foster K.R. Galambos, R. and Justesen D.R. (1980) "Holographic Assesment of Microwave Hearing" Science 209, p 1143-1144

Durney, C.H. Johnson, C.C. Barber P.W. Massoudi, H. Iskander, M.F. Lords J.L. Ryser, K.K. Allen, S.J. and Mitchell, J.C. (1978) "Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook" Rep. SAM-TR-78-22, USAF School on Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas 78235

Flottorp, G. (1976). "Studies on the Mechanisms of the Electrophonic Effect" Acta Oto-Laryngol Suppl. 341, 5-71